Code of Sports-related Arbitration
In force as from 1 July 2020
A General Provisions
R27 Application of the Rules
These Procedural Rules apply whenever the parties have agreed to refer a sports-related dispute to CAS. Such reference may arise out of an arbitration clause contained in a contract or regulations or by reason of a later arbitration agreement (ordinary arbitration proceedings) or may involve an appeal against a decision rendered by a federation, association or sports-related body where the statutes or regulations of such bodies, or a specific agreement provide for an appeal to CAS (appeal arbitration proceedings). Such disputes may involve matters of principle relating to sport or matters of pecuniary or other interests relating to the practice or the development of sport and may include, more generally, any activity or matter related or connected to sport.
The seat of CAS and of each Arbitration Panel (Panel) is Lausanne, Switzerland. However, should circumstances so warrant, and after consultation with all parties, the President of the Panel may decide to hold a hearing in another place and may issue the appropriate directions related to such hearing.
The CAS working languages are French, English and Spanish. In the absence of agreement between the parties, the President of the Panel or, if she/he has not yet been appointed, the President of the relevant Division, shall select one of these three languages as the language of the arbitration at the outset of the procedure, taking into account all relevant circumstances. Thereafter, the proceedings shall be conducted exclusively in that language, unless the parties and the Panel agree otherwise. The parties may request that a language other than French, English or Spanish be selected, provided that the Panel and the CAS Court Office agree. If agreed, the CAS Court Office determines with the Panel the conditions related to the choice of the language; the Panel may order that the parties bear all or part of the costs of translation and interpretation. If a hearing is to be held, the Panel may allow a party to use a language other than that chosen for the arbitration, on condition that it provides, at its own cost, interpretation into and from the official language of the arbitration. The Panel or, prior to the constitution of the Panel, the Division President may order that all documents submitted in languages other than that of the proceedings be filed together with a certified translation in the language of the proceedings.
R30 Representation and Assistance
The parties may be represented or assisted by persons of their choice. The names, addresses, electronic mail addresses, telephone and facsimile numbers of the persons representing the parties shall be communicated to the CAS Court Office, the other party and the Panel after its formation. Any party represented by an attorney or other person shall provide written confirmation of such representation to the CAS Court Office.
R31 Notifications and Communications
All notifications and communications that CAS or the Panel intend for the parties shall be made through the CAS Court Office. The notifications and communications shall be sent to the address shown in the arbitration request or the statement of appeal, or to any other address specified at a later date. All arbitration awards, orders, and other decisions made by CAS and the Panel shall be notified by courier and/or by facsimile and/or by electronic mail but at least in a form permitting proof of receipt. The request for arbitration, the statement of appeal and any other written submissions, printed or saved on digital medium, must be filed by courier delivery to the CAS Court Office by the parties in as many copies as there are other parties and arbitrators, together with one additional copy for the CAS itself, failing which the CAS shall not proceed. If they are transmitted in advance by facsimile or by electronic mail at the official CAS email address (firstname.lastname@example.org), the filing is valid upon receipt of the facsimile or of the electronic mail by the CAS Court Office provided that the written submission and its copies are also filed by courier or uploaded to the CAS e-filing platform within the first subsequent business day of the relevant time limit, as mentioned above. Filing of the above-mentioned submissions by electronic mail is permitted under the conditions set out in the CAS guidelines on electronic filing. The exhibits attached to any written submissions may be sent to the CAS Court Office by electronic mail, provided that they are listed and that each exhibit can be clearly identified; the CAS Court Office may then forward them by the same means. Any other communications from the parties intended for the CAS Court Office or the Panel shall be sent by courier, facsimile or electronic mail to the CAS Court Office.
R32 Time limits
The time limits fixed under this Code shall begin from the day after that on which notification by the CAS is received. Official holidays and non-working days are included in the calculation of time limits. The time limits fixed under this Code are respected if the communications by the parties are sent before midnight, time of the location of their own domicile or, if represented, of the domicile of their main legal representative, on the last day on which such time limits expire. If the last day of the time limit is an official holiday or a non-business day in the location from where the document is to be sent, the time limit shall expire at the end of the first subsequent business day. Upon application on justified grounds and after consultation with the other party (or parties), either the President of the Panel or, if she/he has not yet been appointed, the President of the relevant Division, may extend the time limits provided in these Procedural Rules, with the exception of the time limit for the filing of the statement of appeal, if the circumstances so warrant and provided that the initial time limit has not already expired. With the exception of the time limit for the statement of appeal, any request for a first extension of time of a maximum of ten days can be decided by the CAS Director General without consultation with the other party (-ies). The Panel or, if it has not yet been constituted, the President of the relevant Division may, upon application on justified grounds, suspend an ongoing arbitration for a limited period of time.
R33 Independence and Qualifications of Arbitrators
Every arbitrator shall be and remain impartial and independent of the parties and shall immediately disclose any circumstances which may affect her/his independence with respect to any of the parties. Every arbitrator shall appear on the list drawn up by the ICAS in accordance with the Statutes which are part of this Code, shall have a good command of the language of the arbitration and shall be available as required to complete the arbitration expeditiously.
An arbitrator may be challenged if the circumstances give rise to legitimate doubts over her/his independence or over her/his impartiality. The challenge shall be brought within seven days after the ground for the challenge has become known. Challenges shall be determined by the Challenge Commission, which has the discretion to refer a case to ICAS. The challenge of an arbitrator shall be lodged by the party raising it, in the form of a petition setting forth the facts giving rise to the challenge, which shall be sent to the CAS Court Office or the CAS Anti-Doping Division Court Office. The Challenge Commission or ICAS shall rule on the challenge after the other party (or parties), the challenged arbitrator and the other arbitrators, if any, have been invited to submit written comments. Such comments shall be communicated by the CAS Court Office or the CAS Anti-Doping Division Court Office to the parties and to the other arbitrators, if any. The Challenge Commission or ICAS shall give brief reasons for its decision and may decide to publish it.
An arbitrator may be removed by the Challenge Commission if she/he refuses to or is prevented from carrying out her/his duties or if she/he fails to fulfil her/his duties pursuant to this Code within a reasonable time. The Challenge Commission shall invite the parties, the arbitrator in question and the other arbitrators, if any, to submit written comments and shall give brief reasons for its decision. Removal of an arbitrator cannot be requested by a party.
In the event of resignation, death, removal or successful challenge of an arbitrator, such arbitrator shall be replaced in accordance with the provisions applicable to her/his appointment. If, within the time limit fixed by the CAS Court Office, the Claimant/Appellant does not appoint an arbitrator to replace the arbitrator it had initially appointed, the arbitration shall not be initiated or, in the event it has been already initiated, shall be terminated. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties or otherwise decided by the Panel, the proceedings shall continue without repetition of any aspect thereof prior to the replacement.
R37 Provisional and Conservatory Measures
No party may apply for provisional or conservatory measures under these Procedural Rules before all internal legal remedies provided for in the rules of the federation or sports-body concerned have been exhausted. Upon filing of the request for provisional measures, the Applicant shall pay a nonrefundable Court Office fee of Swiss francs 1,000. — , without which CAS shall not proceed. The CAS Court Office fee shall not be paid again upon filing of the request for arbitration or of the statement of appeal in the same procedure. The President of the relevant Division, prior to the transfer of the file to the Panel, or thereafter, the Panel may, upon application by a party, make an order for provisional or conservatory measures. In agreeing to submit any dispute subject to the ordinary arbitration procedure or to the appeal arbitration procedure to these Procedural Rules, the parties expressly waive their rights to request any such measures from state authorities or tribunals. Should an application for provisional measures be filed, the President of the relevant Division or the Panel shall invite the other party (or parties) to express a position within ten days or a shorter time limit if circumstances so require. The President of the relevant Division or the Panel shall issue an order on an expedited basis and shall first rule on the prima facie CAS jurisdiction. The Division President may terminate the arbitration procedure if she/he rules that the CAS clearly has no jurisdiction. In cases of utmost urgency, the President of the relevant Division, prior to the transfer of the file to the Panel, or thereafter the President of the Panel may issue an order upon mere presentation of the application, provided that the opponent is subsequently heard. When deciding whether to award preliminary relief, the President of the Division or the Panel, as the case may be, shall consider whether the relief is necessary to protect the applicant from irreparable harm, the likelihood of success on the merits of the claim, and whether the interests of the Applicant outweigh those of the Respondent(s). The procedure for provisional measures and the provisional measures already granted, if any, are automatically annulled if the party requesting them does not file a related request for arbitration within 10 days following the filing of the request for provisional measures (ordinary procedure) or any statement of appeal within the time limit provided by Article R49 of the Code (appeals procedure). Such time limits cannot be extended. Provisional and conservatory measures may be made conditional upon the provision of security.
在用盡有關聯合會或運動機構規則規定的所有內部法律補救措施之前，任何一方不得根據本程序規則申請臨時或保護措施。提交臨時措施請求後，申請人應支付1,000瑞士法郎的不可退還的法院辦公費，否則運動仲裁法庭將不會進行。在同一程序中提交仲裁請求或上訴聲明後，運動仲裁法庭法院辦公室費用不再支付。相關部門的部長在將文件轉交給專家組之前或之後，根據一方當事人的申請，專家組可以下令採取臨時措施或保全措施。在同意將受通常仲裁程序或上訴仲裁程序管轄的任何爭議提交給本程序規則時，雙方明確放棄要求國家當局或法庭採取任何此類措施的權利。如果提出臨時措施申請，相關部門的部長或專家組應邀請另一方（或多方）在十天或更短的期限內表明立場，如果情況需要。相關部門或專家組主席應盡快發布命令，並應首先對運動仲裁法庭的初步管轄權作出裁決。如果部門部長裁定運動仲裁法庭明確沒有管轄權，她/她可以終止仲裁程序。在最緊急的情況下，相關部門的部長在將文件轉交給專家組之前，或之後，專家組主席可以僅在提交申請後發布命令，前提是隨後聽取了反對者的意見。在決定是否授予初步救濟時，部門部長或專家組主席應視情況考慮救濟是否有必要保護申請人免受無法彌補的傷害、請求案情的成功可能性，以及申請人的利益是否超過被申請人的利益。臨時措施程序和已經授予的臨時措施，如果請求方在提出臨時措施請求（通常程序）或任何聲明後10天內未提出相關仲裁請求，則自動取消臨時措施程序在本法典第 R49 條規定的時限內提出上訴（上訴程序）。此類時間限制不能延長。臨時和保護措施可能以提供安全為條件。
B Special Provisions Applicable to the Ordinary Arbitration Procedure
R38 Request for Arbitration
The party intending to submit a matter to arbitration under these Procedural Rules (Claimant) shall file a request with the CAS Court Office containing:
• the name and full address of the Respondent(s);
• a brief statement of the facts and legal argument, including a statement of the issue to be submitted to the CAS for determination;
• its request for relief;
• a copy of the contract containing the arbitration agreement or of any document providing for arbitration in accordance with these Procedural Rules;
• any relevant information about the number and choice of the arbitrator(s); if the relevant arbitration agreement provides for three arbitrators, the name of the arbitrator from the CAS list of arbitrators chosen by the Claimant. Upon filing its request, the Claimant shall pay the Court Office fee provided in Article R64.1. If the above-mentioned requirements are not fulfilled when the request for arbitration is filed, the CAS Court Office may grant a single short deadline to the Claimant to complete the request, failing which the CAS Court Office shall not proceed.
R39 Initiation of the Arbitration by CAS and Answer — CAS Jurisdiction
Unless it is clear from the outset that there is no arbitration agreement referring to CAS, the CAS Court Office shall take all appropriate actions to set the arbitration in motion. It shall communicate the request to the Respondent, call upon the parties to express themselves on the law applicable to the merits of the dispute and set time limits for the Respondent to submit any relevant information about the number and choice of the arbitrator(s) from the CAS list, as well as to file an answer to the request for arbitration. The answer shall contain:
• a brief statement of defence;
• any defence of lack of jurisdiction;
• any counterclaim. The Respondent may request that the time limit for the filing of the answer be fixed after the payment by the Claimant of its share of the advance of costs provided by Article R64.2 of this Code. The Panel shall rule on its own jurisdiction, irrespective of any legal action already pending before a State court or another arbitral tribunal relating to the same object between the same parties, unless substantive grounds require a suspension of the proceedings. When an objection to CAS jurisdiction is raised, the CAS Court Office or the Panel, if already constituted, shall invite the parties to file written submissions on jurisdiction. The Panel may rule on its jurisdiction either in a preliminary decision or in an award on the merits. Where a party files a request for arbitration related to an arbitration agreement and facts similar to those which are the subject of a pending ordinary procedure before CAS, the President of the Panel, or if she/he has not yet been appointed, the President of the Division, may, after consulting the parties, decide to consolidate the two procedures.
R40 Formation of the Panel
R40.1 Number of Arbitrators
The Panel is composed of one or three arbitrators. If the arbitration agreement does not specify the number of arbitrators, the President of the Division shall determine the number, taking into account the circumstances of the case. The Division President may then choose to appoint a Sole arbitrator when the Claimant so requests and the Respondent does not pay its share of the advance of costs within the time limit fixed by the CAS Court Office.
R40.2 Appointment of the Arbitrators
The parties may agree on the method of appointment of the arbitrators from the CAS list. In the absence of an agreement, the arbitrators shall be appointed in accordance with the following paragraphs. If, by virtue of the arbitration agreement or a decision of the President of the Division, a sole arbitrator is to be appointed, the parties may select her/him by mutual agreement within a time limit of fifteen days set by the CAS Court Office upon receipt of the request. In the absence of agreement within that time limit, the President of the Division shall proceed with the appointment. If, by virtue of the arbitration agreement, or a decision of the President of the Division, three arbitrators are to be appointed, the Claimant shall nominate its arbitrator in the request or within the time limit set in the decision on the number of arbitrators, failing which the request for arbitration is deemed to have been withdrawn. The Respondent shall nominate its arbitrator within the time limit set by the CAS Court Office upon receipt of the request. In the absence of such appointment, the President of the Division shall proceed with the appointment in lieu of the Respondent. The two arbitrators so appointed shall select the President of the Panel by mutual agreement within a time limit set by the CAS Court Office. Failing agreement within that time limit, the President of the Division shall appoint the President of the Panel.
R40.3 Confirmation of the Arbitrators and Transfer of the File
An arbitrator nominated by the parties or by other arbitrators shall only be deemed appointed after confirmation by the President of the Division, who shall ascertain that each arbitrator complies with the requirements of Article R33. Once the Panel is formed, the CAS Court Office takes notice of the formation and transfers the file to the arbitrators, unless none of the parties has paid an advance of costs provided by Article R64.2 of the Code. An ad hoc clerk independent of the parties may be appointed to assist the Panel. Her/his fees shall be included in the arbitration costs.
R41 Multiparty Arbitration
R41.1 Plurality of Claimants / Respondents
If the request for arbitration names several Claimants and/or Respondents, CAS shall proceed with the formation of the Panel in accordance with the number of arbitrators and the method of appointment agreed by all parties. In the absence of agreement, the President of the Division shall decide on the number of arbitrators in accordance with Article R40.1. If a sole arbitrator is to be appointed, Article R40.2 shall apply. If three arbitrators are to be appointed and there are several Claimants, the Claimants shall jointly nominate an arbitrator. If three arbitrators are to be appointed and there are several Respondents, the Respondents shall jointly nominate an arbitrator. In the absence of such a joint nomination, the President of the Division shall proceed with the particular appointment. If there are three or more parties with divergent interests, both arbitrators shall be appointed in accordance with the agreement between the parties. In the absence of agreement, the arbitrators shall be appointed by the President of the Division in accordance with Article R40.2. In all cases, the arbitrators shall select the President of the Panel in accordance with Article R40.2.
If a Respondent intends to cause a third party to participate in the arbitration, it shall so state in its answer, together with the reasons therefor, and file an additional copy of its answer. The CAS Court Office shall communicate this copy to the person whose participation is requested and fix a time limit for such person to state its position on its participation and to submit a response pursuant to Article R39. It shall also fix a time limit for the Claimant to express its position on the participation of the third party.
If a third party wishes to participate as a party to the arbitration, it shall file an application to this effect with the CAS Court Office, together with the reasons therefor within 10 days after the arbitration has become known to the intervenor, provided that such application is filed prior to the hearing, or prior to the closing of the evidentiary proceedings if no hearing is held. The CAS Court Office shall communicate a copy of this application to the parties and fix a time limit for them to express their position on the participation of the third party and to file, to the extent applicable, an answer pursuant to Article R39.
R41.4 Joint Provisions on Joinder and Intervention
A third party may only participate in the arbitration if it is bound by the arbitration agreement or if it and the other parties agree in writing. Upon expiration of the time limit set in Articles R41.2 and R41.3, the President of the Division or the Panel, if it has already been appointed, shall decide on the participation of the third party, taking into account, in particular, the prima facie existence of an arbitration agreement as contemplated in Article R39. The decision of the President of the Division shall be without prejudice to the decision of the Panel on the same matter. If the President of the Division accepts the participation of the third party, CAS shall proceed with the formation of the Panel in accordance with the number of arbitrators and the method of appointment agreed by all parties. In the absence of agreement between the parties, the President of the Division shall decide on the number of arbitrators in accordance with Article R40.1. If a sole arbitrator is to be appointed, Article R40.2 shall apply. If three arbitrators are to be appointed, the arbitrators shall be appointed by the President of the Division and shall nominate the President of the Panel in accordance with Article R40.2. Regardless of the decision of the Panel on the participation of the third party, the formation of the Panel cannot be challenged. In the event that the Panel accepts the participation, it shall, if required, issue related procedural directions. After consideration of submissions by all parties concerned, the Panel shall determine the status of the third party and its rights in the procedure. After consideration of submissions by all parties concerned, the Panel may allow the filing of amicus curiae briefs, on such terms and conditions as it may fix.
The President of the Division, before the transfer of the file to the Panel, and thereafter the Panel may at any time seek to resolve the dispute by conciliation. Any settlement may be embodied in an arbitral award rendered by consent of the parties.
Proceedings under these Procedural Rules are confidential. The parties, the arbitrators and CAS undertake not to disclose to any third party any facts or other information relating to the dispute or the proceedings without the permission of CAS. Awards shall not be made public unless all parties agree or the Division President so decides.
R44 Procedure before the Panel
R44.1 Written Submissions
The proceedings before the Panel comprise written submissions and, in principle, an oral hearing. Upon receipt of the file and if necessary, the President of the Panel shall issue directions in connection with the written submissions. As a general rule, there shall be one statement of claim, one response and, if the circumstances so require, one reply and one second response. The parties may, in the statement of claim and in the response, raise claims not contained in the request for arbitration and in the answer to the request. Thereafter, no party may raise any new claim without the consent of the other party. Together with their written submissions, the parties shall produce all written evidence upon which they intend to rely. After the exchange of the written submissions, the parties shall not be authorized to produce further written evidence, except by mutual agreement, or if the Panel so permits, on the basis of exceptional circumstances. In their written submissions, the parties shall list the name(s) of any witnesses, whom they intend to call, including a brief summary of their expected testimony, and the name(s) of any experts, stating their area of expertise, and shall state any other evidentiary measure which they request. Any witness statements shall be filed together with the parties’ submissions, unless the President of the Panel decides otherwise. If a counterclaim and/or jurisdictional objection is filed, the CAS Court Office shall fix a time limit for the Claimant to file an answer to the counterclaim and/or jurisdictional objection.
If a hearing is to be held, the President of the Panel shall issue directions with respect to the hearing as soon as possible and set the hearing date. As a general rule, there shall be one hearing during which the Panel hears the parties, any witnesses and any experts, as well as the parties’ final oral arguments, for which the Respondent is heard last. The President of the Panel shall conduct the hearing and ensure that the statements made are concise and limited to the subject of the written presentations, to the extent that these presentations are relevant. Unless the parties agree otherwise, the hearings are not public. The hearing may be recorded. Any person heard by the Panel may be assisted by an interpreter at the cost of the party which called such person. The parties may only call such witnesses and experts which they have specified in their written submissions. Each party is responsible for the availability and costs of the witnesses and experts it has called. The President of the Panel may decide to conduct a hearing by video-conference or to hear some parties, witnesses and experts via tele-conference or video-conference. With the agreement of the parties, she/he may also exempt a witness or expert from appearing at the hearing if the witness or expert has previously filed a statement. The Panel may limit or disallow the appearance of any witness or expert, or any part of their testimony, on the grounds of irrelevance. Before hearing any witness, expert or interpreter, the Panel shall solemnly invite such person to tell the truth, subject to the sanctions of perjury. Once the hearing is closed, the parties shall not be authorized to produce further written pleadings, unless the Panel so orders. After consulting the parties, the Panel may, if it deems itself to be sufficiently well informed, decide not to hold a hearing.
R44.3 Evidentiary Proceedings Ordered by the Panel
A party may request the Panel to order the other party to produce documents in its custody or under its control. The party seeking such production shall demonstrate that such documents are likely to exist and to be relevant. If it deems it appropriate to supplement the presentations of the parties, the Panel may at any time order the production of additional documents or the examination of witnesses, appoint and hear experts, and proceed with any other procedural step. The Panel may order the parties to contribute to any additional costs related to the hearing of witnesses and experts. The Panel shall consult the parties with respect to the appointment and terms of reference of any expert. The expert shall be independent of the parties. Before appointing her/him, the Panel shall invite her/him to immediately disclose any circumstances likely to affect her/his independence with respect to any of the parties.
R44.4 Expedited Procedure
With the consent of the parties, the Division President or the Panel may proceed in an expedited manner and may issue appropriate directions therefor.
If the Claimant fails to submit its statement of claim in accordance with Article R44.1 of the Code, the request for arbitration shall be deemed to have been withdrawn. If the Respondent fails to submit its response in accordance with Article R44.1 of the Code, the Panel may nevertheless proceed with the arbitration and deliver an award. If any of the parties, or its witnesses, has been duly summoned and fails to appear at the hearing, the Panel may nevertheless proceed with the hearing and deliver an award.
R45 Law Applicable to the Merits
The Panel shall decide the dispute according to the rules of law chosen by the parties or, in the absence of such a choice, according to Swiss law. The parties may authorize the Panel to decide ex aequo et bono.
The award shall be made by a majority decision, or, in the absence of a majority, by the President alone. The award shall be written, dated and signed. Unless the parties agree otherwise, it shall briefly state reasons. The sole signature of the President of the Panel or the signatures of the two co-arbitrators, if the President does not sign, shall suffice. Before the award is signed, it shall be transmitted to the CAS Director General who may make rectifications of pure form and may also draw the attention of the Panel to fundamental issues of principle. Dissenting opinions are not recognized by the CAS and are not notified. The Panel may decide to communicate the operative part of the award to the parties, prior to delivery of the reasons. The award shall be enforceable from such notification of the operative part by courier, facsimile and/or electronic mail. The award, notified by the CAS Court Office, shall be final and binding upon the parties subject to recourse available in certain circumstances pursuant to Swiss Law within 30 days from the notification of the award by mail or courier. It may not be challenged by way of an action for setting aside to the extent that the parties have no domicile, habitual residence, or business establishment in Switzerland and that they have expressly excluded all setting aside proceedings in the arbitration agreement or in a subsequent agreement, in particular at the outset of the arbitration.
See, Code of Sports-related Arbitration. https://www.tas-cas.org/fileadmin/user_upload/CAS_Code_2021__EN_.pdf. Last Visited 30 July 2021.